Italian Right Hemisphere Language Battery: The normative study

Sergio Zanini, K. Bryan, G. De Luca, A. Bava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Clinical neurolinguistics still lacks consolidated and standardised tools for the assessment of impairments of pragmatics of verbal communication. In the present paper we present norms of the Italian version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (Batteria del Linguaggio dell'Emisfero Destro, BaLED) [1] originally devised by Bryan [2]. The normative study has been conducted with the recruitment of 440 healthy subjects. The battery of tests was not intended to be cognitively oriented, by providing evidence of the cognitive impairments underpinning verbal pragmatic deficits; on the contrary, it permits the detection of the presence/absence of impairments in processing the main pragmatic features of verbal communication traditionally associated with right hemisphere lesions. Thus, apart from being a clinical tool for diagnosing pragmatic impairments of verbal communication, the BaLED represents a useful initial battery of tests for clinical assessment and for selecting specific populations of neurological patients suitable for investigation in further experimental studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-25
Number of pages13
JournalNeurological Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2005


  • Language
  • Pragmatics
  • RHD
  • Verbal communication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology


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