Italian version of Nursing Students' Perception of Instructor Caring (I-NSPIC): Assessment of reliability and validity

C. Arrigoni, M. Puci, A. M. Grugnetti, L. Collivasone, E. Fenizia, P. Borrelli, E. Vellone, R. Alvaro, M. Piredda, M. G. De Marinis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Clinical experience is an essential component of nursing education since it provides students with the opportunity to construct and develop clinical competencies. Instructor caring is a pivotal facilitator at the forefront of clinical education, playing a key and complex educating role in clinical sectors. For these reasons the aims of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Italian version of NSPIC (I-NSPIC). Methods: A validation multicentre study was conducted in three different Italian universities. A total of 333 nursing students were enrolled in the 2014/2015 academic year. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with oblique rotation was performed to test the construct validity of I-NSPIC. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test retest via Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) analyses were done to assess the internal consistency and stability of the scale. A Spearman's correlation with another scale (CLES-T) was used to examine the concurrent validities. Results: Four factors (control versus flexibility, supportive learning climate, confidence through caring, appreciation of life meaning and respectful sharing) were identified in EFA. The Cronbach's alpha value showed that I-NSPIC was a reliable instrument (α = 0.94) and the ICC coefficient was satisfactory. Conclusion: The I-NSPIC is a valid instrument for assessing the perception of instructor caring in Italian nursing students. It may also prove helpful in promoting the caring ability of nursing students and in increasing the caring interactions in the relationship between instructor and nursing students. The knowledge emerged from this study provide important insight in developing effective training strategies in the clinical training of undergraduate nursing students.

Original languageEnglish
Article number218
JournalBMC Medical Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Nov 17 2017


  • Caring
  • Clinical placement
  • Instructor caring
  • Nursing education
  • Nursing students' perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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