Italian version of the cornell musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire (CMDQ-I): Translation, cultural adaptation and validation

F Magnifica, F Colagrossi, A Aloisi, S Politi, A Peretti, A Berardi, G Galeoto, M Tofani, F Pierelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Almost 25%of workers in the European Union suffer from back pain, and 23%complain of muscle pain. Sixty-two percent of workers carry out repetitive operations with their hands or arms, 46%work in painful or tired positions and 35%carry or handle loads.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Italian version of the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ-I).

METHODS: Translation and cultural adaptation procedures followed international guidelines. Participants were recruited from among the personnel components of the Italian Air Force, who were between 18 and 65 years old. Cronbach's alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to assess internal consistency and stability, respectively. The CDMQ-I was administered together with the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS), and the validity was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient.

RESULTS: All CDMQ-I items were either identical or similar in meaning to the original version's items. The scale was administered twice with a retest after seven to 10 days to 66 participants. Cronbach's alpha was higher than 0.761, and the ICC ranged between 0.737 and 0.952. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed positive and significant correlations (p > 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: The study produced an Italian version of the CMDQ with good reliability and validity. This scale is a useful tool to investigate the frequency and intensity of musculoskeletal disorders in various categories of workers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-125
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


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