The c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) is the JNK isoform mainly expressed in the brain. It is the most responsive to many stress stimuli in the central nervous system from ischemia to Aβ oligomers toxicity. JNK3 activity is spatial and temporal organized by its scaffold protein, in particular JIP-1 and β-arrestin-2, which play a crucial role in regulating different cellular functions in different cellular districts. Extensive evidence has highlighted the possibility of exploiting these adaptors to interfere with JNK3 signaling in order to block its action. JNK plays a key role in the first neurodegenerative event, the perturbation of physiological synapse structure and function, known as synaptic dysfunction. Importantly, this is a common mechanism in many different brain pathologies. Synaptic dysfunction and spine loss have been reported to be pharmacologically reversible, opening new therapeutic directions in brain diseases. Being JNK3-detectable at the peripheral level, it could be used as a disease biomarker with the ultimate aim of allowing an early diagnosis of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopment diseases in a still prodromal phase.