PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to highlight the most recent developments in the understanding of kidney damage associated with vesico ureteral reflux. The severe damage, with major adverse long-term sequelae, was thought to be, for the most part, the result of pyelonephritis, predisposed to by vesico ureteral reflux. RECENT FINDINGS: It is now recognized that there are two distinct forms of kidney damage (congenital and acquired), in association with reflux. We examined the most recent research regarding these two conditions. SUMMARY: The most recent articles focus on an understanding and the possible interventions for the congenital and acquired abnormalities of the kidney, associated with reflux. Of particular interest in congenital disorders, is the importance of urothelium and gene mutations in normal and aberrant development of the urinary tract. As regards the predisposition to urinary tract infections and kidney scarring, the importance of uromodulin in the defence mechanism preventing infection, and the role of interventions aimed at reducing scarring, such as vitamin A and steroids during the acute phase of the infection, are discussed. A recent article of particular value demonstrated the absence of long-term adverse outcomes during pregnancy, in women investigated for urinary tract infections in childhood.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health