Kidney involvement in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: An update on clinical and molecular aspects

C. Verdelli, S. Corbetta

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the third most common endocrine disease. Kidney is a target of both chronic elevated PTH and calcium in PHPT. The classic PHPT complications of symptomatic kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis have become rare and the PHPT current presentation is asymptomatic with uncertain and long-lasting progression. Nonetheless, the routine use of imaging and of biochemical determinations have revealed the frequent occurrence of asymptomatic kidney stones, hypercalciuria and reduced kidney function in asymptomatic PHPT patients. Though the pathogenesis is far from being elucidated, PHPT is associated with reduced renal function, in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate, and related increased morbidity and mortality. In the last decade, the effort of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) panel of experts highlighted that even mild reduction of kidney function is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These considerations provided the basis for the Fourth Workshop recommendations of a more extensive diagnostic workout about kidney features and of wider criteria for parathyroid surgery including asymptomatic kidney disease. Moreover, kidney involvement in PHPT is likely to be affected by variants of genes coding the key molecules regulating the calcium and ions renal handling; these features might have clinical relevance and should be considered both during diagnostic workout and follow-up. Finally, the effects of parathyroid surgery and of medical treatment on kidney involvement of PHPT are reviewed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)R39-R52
JournalEuropean Journal of Endocrinology
Volume176
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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