KIR molecules: Recent patents of interest for the diagnosis and treatment of several autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and B-cell malignancies

Valli de Re, Laura Caggiari, Mariangela de Zorzi, Giuseppe Toffoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

There has been rapidly increasing interest in innate immunity in recent years. Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that constitute a major component of the innate immune system. NK cells are mainly modulated through different receptors and cytokines. The killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) represent the largest category of NK cell receptors. KIR function is mainly regulated by binding both classical MHC I (human leukocyte antigen, HLA A, B and C) and also non-classical MHC. Some KIRs are specific to certain HLA subtypes. Questions about how the NK cells sense self-antigen, infection, and altered cells, and how a protective immune response can be induced are being answered at the molecular level. Research has revealed the central role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, as well as B-cell malignancies, with the emergence of recent developments for KIR characterization, disease monitoring, and treatment. In this paper, we report three recent patents focused on KIR applications: the first one is targeted at the determination of the complex KIR haplotypes by using next generation sequencing; the second patent represents a practical approach for genotyping and treatment of the main KIR-related autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases; and the last patent describes the possible contributions of KIR to promising combination immunotherapies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-174
Number of pages6
JournalRecent patents on DNA & gene sequences
Volume5
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011

Fingerprint

KIR Receptors
Patents
Autoimmune Diseases
B-Lymphocytes
Inflammation
Neoplasms
Natural Killer Cells
Therapeutics
Innate Immunity
HLA-C Antigens
Natural Killer Cell Receptors
Cytokine Receptors
HLA-A Antigens
HLA-B Antigens
Autoantigens
HLA Antigens
Immunotherapy
Haplotypes
Immune System
Chronic Disease

Keywords

  • 1-7F9 mAb
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • B-cell malignancies
  • CD28nullCD8+ T-cells
  • Chronic inflammation
  • Diagnosis
  • HLA
  • Human leukocyte antigens
  • Innate immunity
  • Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors
  • KIR
  • KIR3DL1 receptor
  • MAB
  • Monitoring of disease
  • Monoclonal antibody
  • Natural killer cells
  • Next-generation sequencing
  • NGS
  • NK
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Biotechnology
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

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abstract = "There has been rapidly increasing interest in innate immunity in recent years. Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that constitute a major component of the innate immune system. NK cells are mainly modulated through different receptors and cytokines. The killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) represent the largest category of NK cell receptors. KIR function is mainly regulated by binding both classical MHC I (human leukocyte antigen, HLA A, B and C) and also non-classical MHC. Some KIRs are specific to certain HLA subtypes. Questions about how the NK cells sense self-antigen, infection, and altered cells, and how a protective immune response can be induced are being answered at the molecular level. Research has revealed the central role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, as well as B-cell malignancies, with the emergence of recent developments for KIR characterization, disease monitoring, and treatment. In this paper, we report three recent patents focused on KIR applications: the first one is targeted at the determination of the complex KIR haplotypes by using next generation sequencing; the second patent represents a practical approach for genotyping and treatment of the main KIR-related autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases; and the last patent describes the possible contributions of KIR to promising combination immunotherapies.",
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