Knocking-out the Siah2 E3 ubiquitin ligase prevents mitochondrial NCX3 degradation, regulates mitochondrial fission and fusion, and restores mitochondrial function in hypoxic neurons

Maria Josè Sisalli, Gaetano Ianniello, Claudia Savoia, Ornella Cuomo, Lucio Annunziato, Antonella Scorziello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Na+/Ca2+ exchanger isoform 3 (NCX3) regulates mitochondrial Ca2+ handling through the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and promotes neuronal survival during oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Conversely, Seven In-Absentia Homolog 2 (Siah2), an E3-ubiquitin ligase, which is activated under hypoxic conditions, causes proteolysis of mitochondrial and cellular proteins. In the present study, we investigated whether siah2, upon its activation during hypoxia, interacts with NCX3 and whether such interaction could regulate the molecular events underlying changes in mitochondrial morphology, i.e., fusion and fission, and function, in neurons exposed to anoxia and anoxia/reoxygenation. Methods: To answer these questions, after exposing cortical neurons from siah2 KO mice (siah2 -/-) to OGD and OGD/Reoxygenation, we monitored the changes in mitochondrial fusion and fission protein expression, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and mitochondrial calcium concentration ([Ca2+]m) by using specific fluorescent probes, confocal microscopy, and Western Blot analysis. Results: As opposed to congenic wild-type neurons, in neurons from siah2-/- mice exposed to OGD, form factor (FF), an index of the complexity and branching aspect of mitochondria, and aspect ratio (AR), an index reflecting the "length-to-width ratio" of mitochondria, maintained low expression. In KO siah2 neurons exposed to OGD, downregulation of mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), a protein involved in mitochondrial fusion and upregulation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a protein involved in the mitochondrial fission, were prevented. Furthermore, under OGD conditions, whereas [Ca2+]m was reduced, Δψm, mitochondrial oxidative capacity and ATP production were improved. Interestingly, our immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Siah2 interacted with NCX3. Indeed, siah2 knock-out prevented NCX3 degradation in neurons exposed to OGD. Finally, when siah2-/- neurons were exposed to OGD/reoxygenation, FF, AR, and Mfn1 expression increased, and mitochondrial function improved compared to siah2+/+ neurons. Conclusions: Collectively, these findings indicate that hypoxia-induced SIAH2-E3 ligase activation influences mitochondrial fusion and fission, as well as function, by inducing NCX3 degradation. [MediaObject not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Article number42
JournalCell Communication and Signaling
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 12 2020

Keywords

  • Hypoxia
  • Mitochondria
  • NCX3, cortical neurons
  • siah2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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