Language of dyspnea in panic disorder

Giampaolo Perna, Daniela Caldirola, Caterina Namia, Michele Cucchi, Giovanna Vanni, Laura Bellodi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dyspnea is a key symptom in panic attacks. This study investigated different types of dyspnea induced by the 35% CO2 challenge test given to patients with panic disorder (PD). The types of dyspnea provide room for possible conjectures on neurophysiological pathways involved in the experience of breathing discomfort in PD and in the panic-respiration connection. Factor analysis applied to the Dyspnea Questionnaire identified three main factors: breathing effort, sense of suffocation, and rapid breath. Factor scores for breathing effort and sense of suffocation significantly discriminated between patients who did and those who did not report CO 2-induced panic attacks. Factor scores for breathing effort significantly discriminated between patients whose reaction resembled their unexpected panic attacks and those whose reaction did not. A dissociation between an increased central respiratory command and a decreased mechanical efficiency of the respiratory response in patients with PD may underlie the breathing effort factor during the CO2 challenge. The sense of suffocation factor was found to be linked to chemosensitivity. Although involved in CO2 reactivity, it may not be a central factor in unexpected panic attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-38
Number of pages7
JournalDepression and Anxiety
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Fingerprint

Panic Disorder
Dyspnea
Language
Respiration
Asphyxia
Panic
Carbon Monoxide
Statistical Factor Analysis

Keywords

  • Breathing
  • Chemosensitivity
  • CO
  • Effort
  • Suffocation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Psychology(all)
  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

Perna, G., Caldirola, D., Namia, C., Cucchi, M., Vanni, G., & Bellodi, L. (2004). Language of dyspnea in panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 20(1), 32-38. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20016

Language of dyspnea in panic disorder. / Perna, Giampaolo; Caldirola, Daniela; Namia, Caterina; Cucchi, Michele; Vanni, Giovanna; Bellodi, Laura.

In: Depression and Anxiety, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2004, p. 32-38.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Perna, G, Caldirola, D, Namia, C, Cucchi, M, Vanni, G & Bellodi, L 2004, 'Language of dyspnea in panic disorder', Depression and Anxiety, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 32-38. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20016
Perna G, Caldirola D, Namia C, Cucchi M, Vanni G, Bellodi L. Language of dyspnea in panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety. 2004;20(1):32-38. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20016
Perna, Giampaolo ; Caldirola, Daniela ; Namia, Caterina ; Cucchi, Michele ; Vanni, Giovanna ; Bellodi, Laura. / Language of dyspnea in panic disorder. In: Depression and Anxiety. 2004 ; Vol. 20, No. 1. pp. 32-38.
@article{e799a59c0e8d485a8df892381f06ce56,
title = "Language of dyspnea in panic disorder",
abstract = "Dyspnea is a key symptom in panic attacks. This study investigated different types of dyspnea induced by the 35{\%} CO2 challenge test given to patients with panic disorder (PD). The types of dyspnea provide room for possible conjectures on neurophysiological pathways involved in the experience of breathing discomfort in PD and in the panic-respiration connection. Factor analysis applied to the Dyspnea Questionnaire identified three main factors: breathing effort, sense of suffocation, and rapid breath. Factor scores for breathing effort and sense of suffocation significantly discriminated between patients who did and those who did not report CO 2-induced panic attacks. Factor scores for breathing effort significantly discriminated between patients whose reaction resembled their unexpected panic attacks and those whose reaction did not. A dissociation between an increased central respiratory command and a decreased mechanical efficiency of the respiratory response in patients with PD may underlie the breathing effort factor during the CO2 challenge. The sense of suffocation factor was found to be linked to chemosensitivity. Although involved in CO2 reactivity, it may not be a central factor in unexpected panic attacks.",
keywords = "Breathing, Chemosensitivity, CO, Effort, Suffocation",
author = "Giampaolo Perna and Daniela Caldirola and Caterina Namia and Michele Cucchi and Giovanna Vanni and Laura Bellodi",
year = "2004",
doi = "10.1002/da.20016",
language = "English",
volume = "20",
pages = "32--38",
journal = "Depression and Anxiety",
issn = "1091-4269",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Language of dyspnea in panic disorder

AU - Perna, Giampaolo

AU - Caldirola, Daniela

AU - Namia, Caterina

AU - Cucchi, Michele

AU - Vanni, Giovanna

AU - Bellodi, Laura

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - Dyspnea is a key symptom in panic attacks. This study investigated different types of dyspnea induced by the 35% CO2 challenge test given to patients with panic disorder (PD). The types of dyspnea provide room for possible conjectures on neurophysiological pathways involved in the experience of breathing discomfort in PD and in the panic-respiration connection. Factor analysis applied to the Dyspnea Questionnaire identified three main factors: breathing effort, sense of suffocation, and rapid breath. Factor scores for breathing effort and sense of suffocation significantly discriminated between patients who did and those who did not report CO 2-induced panic attacks. Factor scores for breathing effort significantly discriminated between patients whose reaction resembled their unexpected panic attacks and those whose reaction did not. A dissociation between an increased central respiratory command and a decreased mechanical efficiency of the respiratory response in patients with PD may underlie the breathing effort factor during the CO2 challenge. The sense of suffocation factor was found to be linked to chemosensitivity. Although involved in CO2 reactivity, it may not be a central factor in unexpected panic attacks.

AB - Dyspnea is a key symptom in panic attacks. This study investigated different types of dyspnea induced by the 35% CO2 challenge test given to patients with panic disorder (PD). The types of dyspnea provide room for possible conjectures on neurophysiological pathways involved in the experience of breathing discomfort in PD and in the panic-respiration connection. Factor analysis applied to the Dyspnea Questionnaire identified three main factors: breathing effort, sense of suffocation, and rapid breath. Factor scores for breathing effort and sense of suffocation significantly discriminated between patients who did and those who did not report CO 2-induced panic attacks. Factor scores for breathing effort significantly discriminated between patients whose reaction resembled their unexpected panic attacks and those whose reaction did not. A dissociation between an increased central respiratory command and a decreased mechanical efficiency of the respiratory response in patients with PD may underlie the breathing effort factor during the CO2 challenge. The sense of suffocation factor was found to be linked to chemosensitivity. Although involved in CO2 reactivity, it may not be a central factor in unexpected panic attacks.

KW - Breathing

KW - Chemosensitivity

KW - CO

KW - Effort

KW - Suffocation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4944219922&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4944219922&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/da.20016

DO - 10.1002/da.20016

M3 - Article

C2 - 15368594

AN - SCOPUS:4944219922

VL - 20

SP - 32

EP - 38

JO - Depression and Anxiety

JF - Depression and Anxiety

SN - 1091-4269

IS - 1

ER -