Purpose: We evaluated the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic and robotic assisted partial nephrectomy with controlled hypotensive anesthesia to avoid hilar clamping and eliminate renal ischemia. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with renal tumors who were candidates for nephron sparing surgery and had no contraindication to hypotensive anesthesia underwent partial nephrectomy without hilar clamping and with controlled hypotension during tumor excision. A total of 40 laparoscopic partial nephrectomies and 20 robotic assisted partial nephrectomies were done. All patients who were candidates for laparoscopic or robotic assisted partial nephrectomy regardless of tumor site, size or growth pattern were included in study. The surgical field was assessed for bleeding and visibility using a numerical rating scale. Results: Median tumor size was 3.6 cm (range 1.8 to 10), median operative time was 2 hours (range 1 to 3.5), median blood loss was 200 ml (range 30 to 700 ml) and median hospital stay was 3 days (range 3 to 8). All margins were negative. The median duration of controlled hypotension with a median mean arterial pressure of 65 mm Hg (range 55 to 70) was 14 minutes (range 7 to 16). No patient required intraoperative transfusion but 4 (6.6%) required transfusion postoperatively. Complications developed postoperatively in 3 patients, ie port site bleeding, hemorrhage and hematoma, respectively. Median preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine was 0.9 and 1.10 mg/dl, respectively. The median preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was 87.20 and 75.60 ml/minute/1.73 m2, respectively. Conclusions: Controlled hypotension allowed laparoscopic and robotic assisted partial nephrectomy to be done without renal hilar clamping. All procedures were completed safely and perioperative outcomes are encouraging.
- kidney neoplasms
ASJC Scopus subject areas