Local control of rectal cancer and patient survival has improved remarkably with advances in surgical techniques and adjuvant therapy. Because surgery is the only potentially curative treatment, progression in surgical management has played a central role. Historically, the earliest surgical approaches to rectal cancer were via the perineum. As surgical techniques and general anesthesia improved, other approaches such as a posterior approach were undertaken to improve access to the whole rectum. Consequently, abdominoperineal resection became the standard treatment until anterior resection was introduced for proximal rectal cancers. Abdominoperineal resection was the standard treatment for very low rectal cancer below 5 cm from the anal verge for many years. The first surgeon to report excising the rectum successfully was Jacques Lisfanc in 1826 . The most important recent advance in rectal cancer surgery has been the advent of total mesorectal excision (TME), as proposed by Heald in 1982 .
|Title of host publication||Intersphincteric Resection for Low Rectal Tumors|
|Number of pages||11|
|ISBN (Print)||9783709109298, 3709109280, 9783709109281|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 1 2012|
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