Laparoscopy in children and its impact on brain oxygenation during routine inguinal hernia repair

Gloria Pelizzo, Luciano Bernardi, Veronica Carlini, Noemi Pasqua, Simonetta Mencherini, Giuseppe Maggio, Annalisa De Silvestri, Lucio Bianchi, Valeria Calcaterra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The systemic impact of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and/or changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) during laparoscopy are not yet well defined. Changes in brain oxygenation have been reported as a possible cause of cerebral hypotension and perfusion. The side effects of anaesthesia could also be involved in these changes, especially in children. To date, no data have been reported on brain oxygenation during routine laparoscopy in paediatric patients. Patients and Methods: Brain and peripheral oxygenation were investigated in 10 children (8 male, 2 female) who underwent elective minimally invasive surgery for inguinal hernia repair. Intraoperative transcranial near-infrared spectroscopy to assess regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2), peripheral oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry and heart rate (HR) were monitored at five surgical intervals: Induction of anaesthesia (baseline T1); before CO2insufflation induced pneumoperitoneum (PP) (T2); CO2PP insufflation (T3); cessation of CO2PP (T4); before extubation (T5). Results: rScO2decreases were recorded immediately after T1 and became significant after insufflation (P = 0.006; rScO2decreased 3.6 ± 0.38%); restoration of rScO2was achieved after PP cessation (P = 0.007). The changes in rScO2were primarily due to IAP increases (P = 0.06). The HR changes were correlated to PP pressure (P < 0.001) and CO2flow rate (P = 0.001). No significant peripheral effects were noted. Conclusions: The increase in IAP is a critical determinant in cerebral oxygenation stability during laparoscopic procedures. However, the impact of anaesthesia on adaptive changes should not be underestimated. Close monitoring and close collaboration between the members of the multidisciplinary paediatric team are essential to guarantee the patient's safety during minimally invasive surgical procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-56
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Minimal Access Surgery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017


  • Brain oxygenation
  • children
  • laparoscopy
  • near-infrared spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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