Several ultrasound-guided interventional procedures have been proposed to treat benign thyroid nodules without open surgery. The basic principle is to destroy thyroid nodular tissue by physical means. Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) was introduced in 1990 and it has since proven to be very helpful in cystic benign thyroid nodules, whereas it is poorly effective in solid lesions and is discussed in Chapter 11. HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound) is a promising new interventional US-guided technique for solid nodules, illustrated in Chapter 13.
ASJC Scopus subject areas