A multicentre registry of children who had been successfully removed from therapy for some common childhood cancers (Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma, acute lymphatic leukaemia and other leukaemias) was established in Italy in 1981. The present study describes mortality and occurrence of second primary malignancies (SPMs) among 1467 children who were alive when the registry was established. Follow-up ended on December 31, 1983 for mortality and 1 year later for the occurrence of SPMs. Sixty-seven deaths were recorded, 11 of which wre due to causes other than progression of the original disease. Eleven incident SPMs were identified (i.e. 3 acute myeloid leukaemias, 3 thyroid carcinomas, 1 bilateral breast carcinoma, 1 liver malignant mesenchymoma, 1 astrocytoma, 1 chondrosarcoma and 1 osteosarcoma) corresponding to an incidence rate of 2.1 1000 patient-years at risk. Anecdotal reports were collected regarding 2 further SPMs (a thyroid carcinoma and a myeloid leukaemia) as well as several benign tumours, including 2 mammary fibroadenomas.
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