Learning from Monocyte-Macrophage Fusion and Multinucleation: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Osteoporosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts (OCs) covers an essential role in developing bone diseases, such as osteoporosis (OP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Monocytes or macrophages fusion and multinucleation (M-FM) are key processes for generating multinucleated mature cells with essential roles in bone remodelling. Depending on the phenotypic heterogeneity of monocyte/macrophage precursors and the extracellular milieu, two distinct morphological and functional cell types can arise mature OCs and giant cells (GCs). Despite their biological relevance in several physiological and pathological responses, many gaps exist in our understanding of their formation and role in bone, including the molecular determinants of cell fusion and multinucleation. Here, we outline fusogenic molecules during M-FM involved in OCs and GCs formation in healthy conditions and during OP and RA. Moreover, we discuss the impact of the inflammatory milieu on modulating macrophages phenotype and their differentiation towards mature cells. Methodological approach envisaged searches on Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, and EMBASE databases to select relevant studies on M-FM, osteoclastogenesis, inflammation, OP, and RA. This review intends to give a state-of-the-art description of mechanisms beyond osteoclastogenesis and M-FM, with a focus on OP and RA, and to highlight potential biological therapeutic targets to prevent extreme bone loss.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume21
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 20 2020

Keywords

  • bone loss
  • osteoporosis
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • macrophage fusion and multinucleation
  • osteoclasts
  • giant cells
  • inflammation
  • macrophage polarisation
  • natural compounds

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