Left ventricular noncompaction, morphological, and clinical features for an integrated diagnosis

Francesco Negri, Antonio De Luca, Enrico Fabris, Renata Korcova, Carlo Cernetti, Chrysanthos Grigoratos, Giovanni Donato Aquaro, Gaetano Nucifora, Paolo G. Camici, Gianfranco Sinagra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


The presence of myocardial noncompaction (NC), regardless of the criterion used, does not identify cardiomyopathy per se. The distinction between a morphological variant and the presence of an NC cardiomyopathy is challenging. However, thanks to larger cohorts of patients and longer periods of follow-up, better clinical characterization and prognostic evaluation are becoming available. Indeed, the physician is required to integrate the evidence of NC with the clinical history of the patient, which is supplemented by necessary advanced instrumental investigations before a definite diagnosis of NC cardiomyopathy can be made. Therefore, we extensively revised the current literature in order to help the clinicians to identify clinical features which are pivotal supporting diagnostic element for the correct recognition of Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy and thus highlighting the difference between a form of cardiomyopathy and a mere intraventricular hypertrabeculation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-323
Number of pages9
JournalHeart Failure Reviews
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 15 2019



  • Cardiac magnetic resonance
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Echocardiography
  • Genetics
  • Late gadolinium enhancement
  • Left ventricular noncompaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Negri, F., De Luca, A., Fabris, E., Korcova, R., Cernetti, C., Grigoratos, C., Aquaro, G. D., Nucifora, G., Camici, P. G., & Sinagra, G. (2019). Left ventricular noncompaction, morphological, and clinical features for an integrated diagnosis. Heart Failure Reviews, 24(3), 315-323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10741-018-9763-3