Left ventricular strain and twisting in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: an updated review

Marijana Tadic, Elisabeth Pieske-Kraigher, Cesare Cuspidi, Martin Genger, Daniel A. Morris, Kun Zhang, Nina Alexandra Walther, Burket Pieske

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Despite the high prevalence of the patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), our knowledge about this entity, from diagnostic tools to therapeutic approach, is still not well established. The evaluation of patients with HFpEF is mainly based on echocardiography, as the most widely accepted tool in cardiac imaging. Identification of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction has long been considered as the only responsible for HFpEF, and its evaluation is still “sine qua non” of HFpEF diagnostics. However, one should be aware of the fact that identifying cardiac dysfunction in HFpEF might be very challenging and often needs more complex evaluation of cardiac structure and function. New echocardiographic modalities such as 2D and 3D speckle tracking imaging could help in the diagnosis of HFpEF and provide further information regarding LV function and mechanics. Early diagnosis, medical management, and adequate monitoring of HFpEF patients are prerequisites of modern medical treatment. New healthcare approaches require individualized patient care, which is why clinicians should have all clinical, laboratory, and diagnostic data before making final decisions about the treatment of any patients. This is particularly important for HFpEF that often remains undiagnosed for quite a long time, which further prolongs the beginning of adequate treatment and brings into question outcome of these patients. The aim of this article is to provide the overview of the main principles of LV mechanics and summarize recent data regarding LV strain in patients with HFpEF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-379
Number of pages9
JournalHeart Failure Reviews
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2017


  • Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
  • Left ventricle
  • Strain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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