Background: Surgical options in male patients with genital lichen sclerosus (LS) involving the anterior urethra still represent a challenging issue. Objective: To review the outcome of surgical treatment in patients with genital and urethral LS. Design, setting, and participants: Multicenter, international, retrospective, observational descriptive study performed in two specialized centers. Two hundred fifteen male patients underwent surgery for histologically proven genital LS involving the foreskin and/or the anterior urethra. Intervention: Circumcision (34 cases), meatotomy (15 cases), circumcision and meatotomy (8 cases), one-stage penile oral mucosal graft urethroplasty (8 cases), two-stage penile oral mucosal graft urethroplasty (15 cases), one-stage bulbar oral mucosal graft urethroplasty (88 cases), and definitive perineal urethrostomy (47 cases). Measurements: Primary outcome was considered a failure when any postoperative instrumentation was needed, including dilation, or when recurrence was diagnosed. Results and limitations: The average follow-up was 56 mo (range: 12-170 mo). Circumcision showed 100% success rate with no recurrence of the disease; meatotomy, 80% success rate; circumcision and meatotomy, 100% success rate; one-stage penile oral mucosal graft urethroplasty, 100% success rate; two-stage penile oral mucosal graft urethroplasty, 73% success rate; one-stage bulbar oral mucosal graft urethroplasty, 91% success rate; and definitive perineal urethrostomy, 72% success rate. Limitations include short follow-up for recording neoplastic degeneration and no instrument to investigate quality of life. Conclusions: Patients with LS disease restricted to the foreskin and/or external urinary meatus showed a high surgery success rate. In patients with penile urethral strictures or panurethral strictures, the use of one-stage oral graft urethroplasty showed greater success than the staged procedures.
- Balanitis xerotica obliterans
- Lichen sclerosus
- Urethral stricture
ASJC Scopus subject areas