Lifestyle factors and risk of leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a case–control study

Stefano Parodi, Irene Santi, Enza Marani, Claudia Casella, Antonella Puppo, Elsa Garrone, Vincenzo Fontana, Emanuele Stagnaro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Risk factors for leukemia and lymphomas in adults are largely unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the association between lifestyle factors and the risk of hematological malignancies in an adult population. Methods: Data were drawn from a population-based case–control study carried out in Italy and included 294 cases (199 lymphoid and 95 myeloid) and 279 controls. Analyses were performed using standard multivariable logistic regression. Results: Hair dye use for at least 15 years was associated with a higher risk of lymphoid malignancies among females (OR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.0–4.9, p = 0.036, test for trend). Furthermore, a protective effect of a moderate to heavy tea consumption on the risk of myeloid malignancies was observed (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.2–0.9, p = 0.017). No association was found for the use of alcoholic beverages and tobacco smoking. Conclusions: Our results confirm the potential carcinogenic effect of prolonged hair dye use observed in previous investigations. The excess risk could be explained by exposure to a higher concentration of toxic compounds in hair products used in the past. The protective effect of regular tea consumption observed in an area with a very high prevalence of black tea consumers deserves further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)367-375
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Alcohol
  • Case–control study
  • Coffee
  • Hair dyes
  • Hemolymphopoietic malignancies
  • Tea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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