EEG has a central role in the diagnosis of epileptiform abnormalities helpful in diagnosing epilepsy. Since irregularities are random and sporadic events, easily activated in the initial phase of sleep but difficult to observe in a standard EEG examination, sleep deprivation is a frequent condition to be used. Thus, in this study the EEG monitoring of 44 subjects, 14 without epilepsy and 30 with epilepsy, afferent to the IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino Pulejo” of Messina were examined after sleep deprivation the day before performing the registration. EEGs were recorded according to the international setting system using nineteen channels. The normalized power spectral densities in delta (2–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–13 Hz) and beta (13–30 Hz) band were computed and the non-linear parameters such as beta exponent, fractal dimension and zero crossing were considered. The differences between the sleep and awake were significant in almost all the channels in the beta band and in posterior areas for beta exponent, fractal dimension and zero crossing in normal subjects. In epileptic patients they were significant in all the channels in the delta band and for the non-linear parameters, and in several ones in theta and beta bands. Even if in posterior areas all the spectral and the non-linear parameters showed different values between epileptic and healthy subjects, no significant differences were found. The results suggest that analysis of spectral power as well as of complexity, obtained by non-linear parameters, could be used to identify differences between healthy and epileptic patients.