Significance: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACVDs) continue to be a primary cause of mortality worldwide in adults aged 35-70 years, occurring more often in countries with lower economic development, and they constitute an ever-growing global burden that has a considerable socioeconomic impact on society. The ACVDs encompass diverse pathologies such as coronary artery disease and heart failure (HF), among others. Recent Advances: It is known that oxidative stress plays a relevant role in ACVDs and some of its effects are mediated by lipid oxidation. In particular, lipid peroxidation (LPO) is a process under which oxidants such as reactive oxygen species attack unsaturated lipids, generating a wide array of oxidation products. These molecules can interact with circulating lipoproteins, to diffuse inside the cell and even to cross biological membranes, modifying target nucleophilic sites within biomolecules such as DNA, lipids, and proteins, and resulting in a plethora of biological effects. Critical Issues: This review summarizes the evidence of the effect of LPO in the development and progression of atherosclerosis-based diseases, HF, and other cardiovascular diseases, highlighting the role of protein adduct formation. Moreover, potential therapeutic strategies targeted at lipoxidation in ACVDs are also discussed. Future Directions: The identification of valid biomarkers for the detection of lipoxidation products and adducts may provide insights into the improvement of the cardiovascular risk stratification of patients and the development of therapeutic strategies against the oxidative effects that can then be applied within a clinical setting.