It has been suggested that when words and nonwords are presented mixed in the same blocks in transparent scripts the word frequency effect can be eliminated. This is either because in reading mixed blocks the lexical route is deemphasised in favour of the nonlexical route (route deemphasis) or because a homogenisation of reaction times occurs for words and nonwords by adjustment of a time criterion for articulation (time criterion). In five experiments using different list manipulations and experimental designs, we assessed the effects of frequency and length in reading aloud words and nonwords in the Italian transparent orthography. The effect of word frequency remained constant irrespective of context manipulation and nonword characteristics. As reading nonwords may be easier in Italian than in English, control over reading processing may be unnecessary for Italian readers. The results are discussed with respect to current computational models of reading.
- List context
- Orthographic transparency
- Word frequency
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology