Live surgery: highly educational or harmful?

B. Rocco, A. A.C. Grasso, E. de Lorenzis, J. W. Davis, C. Abbou, A. Breda, T. Erdogru, R. Gaston, I. S. Gill, E. Liatsikos, B. Oktay, J. Palou, T. Piéchaud, J. U. Stolzenburg, Y. Sun, G. Albo, H. Villavicencio, X. Zhang, V. Disanto, P. EmiliozziV. Pansadoro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Live surgery (LS) is considered a useful teaching opportunity. The benefits must be balanced with patient safety concerns. To evaluate the rate of complications of a series of urologic LS performed by experts during the Congress Challenge in Laparoscopy and Robotics (CILR). Methods: We present a large, multi-institution, multi-surgeon database that derives from 12 CILR events, from 2004 to 2015 with a total of 224 cases. Radical prostatectomy (RP) was the most common procedure and a selection of complex cases was noted. The primary measure was postoperative complications and use of a Postoperative Morbidity Index (PMI) to allow quantitative weighing of postoperative complications. Results: From 12 events, the number of cases increased from 11 in 2004 to 27 in 2015 and a total of 27 surgeons. Of 224 cases (164 laparoscopic and 60 robotic), there were 26 (11.6%) complications: 5 grade I, 5 grade II, 3 grade IIIa, 12 grade IIIb and 1 grade V, the latter from laparoscopic cystectomy. Analysis of PMI was 23 times higher from cystectomy compared to RP. Conclusions: In the setting of live surgery, the overall rate of complications is low considering the complexity of surgeries. The PMI is not higher in more complex procedures, whereas RP seems very safe.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-175
Number of pages5
JournalWorld Journal of Urology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Live case demonstration
  • Live-surgery broadcast
  • Mentoring
  • Surgical complications
  • Surgical education
  • Training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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