Objective: To evaluate retrospectively the safety and radicality of liver resection performed without total vascular exclusion (TVE). Summary Background Data: TVE is recommended for safe liver surgery, at least in the case of resection of the paracaval portion of the liver. However, it has some drawbacks because of its invasiveness. Methods: The authors retrospectively evaluated 329 of 471 consecutive patients who underwent liver resection from October 1994 to October 1999. All of these patients had tumors involving segments 1, 7, or 8 or the cranial portion of segment 4, or underwent major hepatectomies that required exposure of the inferior vena cava (IVC), the main trunks of the hepatic veins, or both. Sixty-four patients underwent resection that included segment 1, with or without the reconstruction of the IVC, the hepatic vein, or both. Results: Three hundred twenty-four of 329 procedures were done under intermittent warm ischemia; no clamping methods were used in 6. TVE was never needed. There were no postoperative 30-day deaths. The complication rate was 25.5%, and only 2.1% had major complications. Only 13 (3.9%) patients required whole blood transfusion. Part of the wail of the IVC was resected in six patients, and the hepatic veins were reconstructed in four. Surgical clearance was achieved in all patients undergoing surgery for a tumor. Conclusions: These results show that liver surgery performed without TVE is safe and effective even in aggressive procedures for liver tumors involving the cavohepatic junction. Therefore, TVE should be further restricted to exceptional patients.
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