The aim of this study was to collect data from patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) for adenomatosis; to analyze the symptoms, the characteristics of the disease, and the recipient outcomes; and to better define the role of LT in this rare indication. This retrospective multicenter study, based on data from the European Liver Transplant Registry, encompassed patients who underwent LT for adenomatosis between January 1, 1986, and July 15, 2013, in Europe. Patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IA were not excluded. This study included 49 patients. Sixteen patients had GSD, and 7 had liver vascular abnormalities. The main indications for transplantation were either a suspicion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; 15 patients) or a histologically proven HCC (16 patients), but only 17 had actual malignant transformation (MT) of adenomas. GSD status was similar for the 2 groups, except for age and the presence of HCC on explants (P = 0.030). Three patients with HCC on explant developed recurrence after transplantation. We obtained and studied the pathomolecular characteristics for 23 patients. In conclusion, LT should remain an extremely rare treatment for adenomatosis. Indications for transplantation primarily concern the MT of adenomas. The decision should rely on morphological data and histological evidence of MT. Additional indications should be discussed on a case-by-case basis. In this report, we propose a simplified approach to this decision-making process.
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