Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) is a clinical challenge as no curative therapeutic is available. In this context, a better understanding of metastasis and resistance mechanisms in PCa is an important issue. As phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss is the most common genetic lesion in such cancer, we investigate human data sets for mechanisms that can constrain cancer evolution in this setting. Here we report a liver X receptor (LXR) signature, which tightly correlates with PTEN loss, in PCa. Accordingly, the LXR pathway is deregulated in prostate carcinomas in Pten-null mice. Genetic ablation of LXRs in Pten-null mice, exacerbates PCa invasiveness and metastatic dissemination, which involves mesenchymal transition and accumulation of matrix metalloproteinases. Mechanistically, PTEN deletion governed LXR transcriptional activity through deregulation of cholesterol de novo synthesis, resulting in accumulation of endogenous LXR ligands. Our study therefore reveals a functional circuit linking PTEN and LXR, and highlights LXRs as metabolic gatekeepers that are able to constrain PCa progression. © 2017 The Author(s).