Alteration in RNA metabolism, concerning both coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), may play an important role in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. In this work, we performed a whole transcriptome RNA-seq analysis to investigate the regulation of non-coding and coding RNAs in Sporadic ALS patients (SALS), mutated ALS patients (FUS, TARDBP and SOD1) and matched controls in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC). Selected transcripts were validated in spinal cord tissues. A total of 293 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs was found in SALS patients, whereas a limited amount of lncRNAs was deregulated in mutated patients. A total of 87 mRNAs was differentially expressed in SALS patients; affected genes showed an association with transcription regulation, immunity and apoptosis pathways. Taken together our data highlighted the importance of extending the knowledge on transcriptomic molecular alterations and on the significance of regulatory lncRNAs classes in the understanding of ALS disease. Our data brought the light on the importance of lncRNAs and mRNAs regulation in central and peripheral systems, offering starting points for new investigations about pathogenic mechanism involved in ALS disease.