Long-Term Effects of a Classic Ketogenic Diet on Ghrelin and Leptin Concentration: A 12-Month Prospective Study in a Cohort of Italian Children and Adults with GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome and Drug Resistant Epilepsy

Ramona De Amicis, Alessandro Leone, Chiara Lessa, Andrea Foppiani, Simone Ravella, Stefano Ravasenghi, Claudia Trentani, Cinzia Ferraris, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Valentina De Giorgis, Anna Tagliabue, Alberto Battezzati, Simona Bertoli

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Abstract

The classical ketogenic diet (cKD) is an isocaloric, high fat, very low-carbohydrate diet that induces ketosis, strongly influencing leptin and ghrelin regulation. However, not enough is known about the impact of a long-term cKD. This study evaluated the effects of a 12-month cKD on ghrelin and leptin concentrations in children, adolescents and adults affected by the GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome or drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). We also investigated the relationship between the nutritional status, body composition and ghrelin and leptin variations. We carried out a longitudinal study on 30 patients: Twenty-five children and adolescents (15 females, 8 ± 4 years), and five adults (two females, 34 ± 16 years). After 12-monoths cKD, there were no significant changes in ghrelin and leptin, or in the nutritional status, body fat, glucose and lipid profiles. However, a slight height z-score reduction (from -0.603 ± 1.178 to -0.953 ± 1.354, p ≤ 0.001) and a drop in fasting insulin occurred. We found no correlations between ghrelin changes and nutritional status and body composition, whereas leptin changes correlated positively with variations in the weight z-score and body fat (ρ = 0.4534, p = 0.0341; ρ = 0.5901, p = 0.0135; respectively). These results suggest that a long-term cKD does not change ghrelin and leptin concentrations independently of age and neurological condition.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 25 2019

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    De Amicis, R., Leone, A., Lessa, C., Foppiani, A., Ravella, S., Ravasenghi, S., Trentani, C., Ferraris, C., Veggiotti, P., De Giorgis, V., Tagliabue, A., Battezzati, A., & Bertoli, S. (2019). Long-Term Effects of a Classic Ketogenic Diet on Ghrelin and Leptin Concentration: A 12-Month Prospective Study in a Cohort of Italian Children and Adults with GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome and Drug Resistant Epilepsy. Nutrients, 11(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081716