BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative therapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, post-HCT relapse and regimen-related toxicity remain significant barriers to long-term survival. In recent years, new conditioning regimens have been explored to improve transplantation outcomes in patients with AML. Treosulfan combines a potent immunosuppressive and antileukemic effect with a low toxicity profile. METHODS: To investigate the role of treosulfan-based conditioning, the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Acute Leukemia Working Party performed a registry analysis of 520 adult patients with AML who received treosulfan-based conditioning and underwent HCT between 2000 and 2012, including 225 patients in first complete remission, 107 in second or later complete remission, and 188 with active/advanced disease 188 (88 with primary refractory disease). The median patient age was 57 years (range, 20-73 years). Donors were human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings (n = 187), unrelated donors (n = 235), or mismatched related donors (n = 98). Conditioning regimens included treosulfan (42 g/m2 [n = 396], 36 g/m2 [n = 109], or 30 g/ m2 [n = 15]) with fludarabine or alkylating agents followed by infusion of hematopoietic stem cells (bone marrow, n = 52; peripheral blood, n = 468). RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 61 months, the 5-year overall survival, leukemia-free survival, relapse incidence, and nonrelapse mortality rates were 38%, 33%, 42%, and 25%, respectively. The incidence of grade II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was 24% (grade III-V, 11%) and 38%, respectively. Only 11 patients (2%) developed veno-occlusive disease, with two deaths (0.4%) from veno-occlusive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Treosulfan-based conditioning regimens provide an acceptable long-term survival with favorable nonrelapse mortality and a very low risk of veno-occlusive disease. Further studies are needed to optimize the treosulfan-based conditioning regimen for patients with AML. Cancer 2017;123:2671-79. © 2017 American Cancer Society.