Long-term outcome of a randomized controlled study in patients with newly diagnosed severe aplastic anemia treated with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine, with or without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: A Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party Trial from the European Group of Blood and Marrow Transplantation

A. Tichelli, R.P. De Latour, J. Passweg, C. Knol-Bout, G. Socié, J. Marsh, H. Schrezenmeier, B. Höchsmann, A. Bacigalupo, S. Samarasinghe, A. Rovó, A. Kulasekararaj, A. Röth, D.-J. Eikema, P. Bosman, P. Bader, A. Risitano, C. Dufour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This follow-up study of a randomized, prospective trial included 192 patients with newly diagnosed severe aplastic anemia receiving antithymoglobulin and cyclosporine, with or without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of G-CSF on overall survival, event-free survival, probability of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), clinical paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, relapse, avascular osteonecrosis and chronic kidney disease. The median follow-up was 11.7 years (95% CI, 10.9- 12.5). The overall survival rate at 15 years was 57±12% in the group given GCSF and 63±12% in the group not given G-CSF (P=0.92); the corresponding event-free survival rates were 24±10% and 23±10%, respectively (P=0.36). In total, 9 patients developed MDS or AML, 10 only a clonal cytogenetic abnormality, 7 a solid cancer, 18 clinical paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, 8 osteonecrosis, and 12 chronic kidney disease, without any difference between patients treated with or without G-CSF. The cumulative incidence of MDS, AML or isolated cytogenetic abnormality at 15 years was 8.5±3% for the G-CSF group and 8.2±3% for the non-G-CSF group (P=0.90). The cumulative incidence of any late event including myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia, isolated cytogenetic abnormalities, solid cancer, clinical paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, aseptic osteonecrosis, chronic kidney disease and relapse was 50±12% for the G-CSF group and 49±12% for the non-G-CSF group (P=0.65). Our results demonstrate that it is unlikely ABSTRACT A. Tichelli that G-CSF has an impact on the outcome of severe aplastic anemia; nevertheless, very late events are common and eventually affect the prognosis of these patients, irrespectively of their age at the time of immunosuppressive therapy (NCT01163942). © 2020 Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1223-1231
Number of pages9
JournalHaematologica
Volume105
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • cyclosporine
  • granulocyte colony stimulating factor
  • methylprednisolone
  • prednisone
  • thymocyte antibody
  • acute myeloid leukemia
  • adult
  • allogeneic stem cell transplantation
  • aplastic anemia
  • Article
  • aseptic necrosis
  • chronic kidney failure
  • clinical article
  • controlled study
  • disease severity
  • event free survival
  • female
  • follow up
  • human
  • male
  • multicenter study
  • myelodysplastic syndrome
  • open study
  • overall survival
  • paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  • prognosis
  • randomized controlled trial
  • relapse
  • solid malignant neoplasm

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