Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD: A Systematic Review of Self-Esteem and Social Function

V. Harpin, L. Mazzone, J. P. Raynaud, J. Kahle, P. Hodgkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To compare the long-term self-esteem and social function outcomes of individuals with untreated and treated ADHD across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Method: A systematic search of 12 databases was performed to identify peer-reviewed, primary research articles, published January 1980 to December 2011, reporting long-term self-esteem and/or social function outcomes (≥2 years; life consequences distinct from symptoms) of individuals with untreated or treated ADHD. Results: Overall, 127 studies reported 150 outcomes. Most outcomes were poorer in individuals with untreated ADHD versus non-ADHD controls (57% [13/23] for self-esteem; 73% [52/71] for social function). A beneficial response to treatment (pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and multimodal treatments) was reported for the majority of self-esteem (89% [8/9]) and social function (77% [17/22]) outcomes. Conclusion: Untreated ADHD was associated with poorer long-term self-esteem and social function outcomes compared with non-ADHD controls. Treatment for ADHD was associated with improvement in outcomes; however, further long-term outcome studies are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-305
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Attention Disorders
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • ADHD
  • long-term outcomes
  • self-esteem
  • social functioning
  • treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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