Longitudinal prognostic value of serum "free" copper in patients with Alzheimer disease

R. Squitti, F. Bressi, P. Pasqualetti, C. Bonomini, R. Ghidoni, G. Binetti, E. Cassetta, F. Moffa, M. Ventriglia, F. Vernieri, P. M. Rossini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background:: Serum copper not bound to ceruloplasmin ("free") appears slightly elevated in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We explored whether a deregulation of the free copper pool can predict AD clinical worsening. METHODS:: We assessed levels of copper, iron, zinc, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, peroxides, total antioxidant capacity, free copper, and apolipoprotein E genotype in 81 patients with mild or moderate AD, mean age 74.4, SD = 7.4 years, clinically followed up after 1 year. The association among biologic variables under study and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (primary outcome), activities of daily living (ADL), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) (secondary outcomes) performed at study entry and after 1 year were analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS:: Free copper predicted the annual change in MMSE, adjusted for the baseline MMSE by means of a linear regression model: it raised the explained variance from 2.4% (with only sex, age, and education) to 8.5% (p = 0.026). When the annual change in MMSE was divided into

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)50-55
Number of pages6
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 6 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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