Lopinavir/ritonavir exposure in treatment-naive HIV-infected children following twice or once daily administration

Raffaella Rosso, Antonio Di Biagio, Chiara Dentone, Guido Castelli Gattinara, Alessandra Maria Martino, Alessandra Viganò, Marzia Merlo, Carlo Giaquinto, Osvalda Rampon, Matteo Bassetti, Giorgio Gatti, Claudio Viscoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Lopinavir/ritonavir is approved for treatment of HIV-infected children at a dosage regimen of 230/57.5 mg/m2 twice daily. However, once daily administration could increase convenience and patient adherence. Our study aimed at evaluating whether inhibitory concentrations are maintained in plasma following administration of lopinavir/ritonavir once daily. Patients and methods: Lopinavir/ritonavir was administered at the standard twice daily regimen to 21 HIV-infected children, as a component of their antiretroviral treatment. Following at least 1 month of administration, seven patients received a dose of 460/115 mg/m2 once daily for three consecutive days. After the third dose of once daily administration, blood samples were drawn at the following times: 0 (pre-dose), 1, 2 and 4 h following administration. The pre-dose (Cmin) and the peak (Cmax) concentrations were compared with the values obtained following twice daily administration in all the study patients. Results: Median (interquartile range) Cmin with the once daily regimen was 1.59 (0.77-6.85) mg/L versus 7.90 (5.45-9.77) mg/L with the twice daily regimen (P <0.05). Cmin was considered inhibitory for wild-type virus (>1.0 mg/L) in four out of seven patients. Cmax did not differ significantly between the once daily and twice daily regimens. Conclusions: Our small pilot study suggests that lopinavir/ritonavir once daily may be a suitable regimen for antiretroviral-naive children. However, due to the high interindividual variability and low concentrations in some patients, therapeutic drug monitoring may be necessary to ensure that concentrations are adequate to inhibit viral replication. A formal clinical study of lopinavir/ritonavir once daily in treatment-naive children is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1168-1171
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006


  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Protease inhibitors
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology


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