Lopinavir/Ritonavir Pharmacokinetics in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients with or Without cirrhosis

Valeria Micheli, Mario Regazzi, Laura Dickinson, Paola Meraviglia, Paola Villani, Saye H. Khoo, Paolo Viganò, Laura Cordier, Maria Cusato, Piergiorgio Duca, Giovanna Orlando, Giuliano Rizzardini, David J. Back, Antonietta Cargnel

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Liver disease may alter the pharmacokinetics of antiretrovirals and produce changes in plasma protein binding. The aim was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of total and unbound lopinavir (LPV) in HIV-infected patients with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. Fifty-six HIV+ patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) (group I = 24 controls; II = 23 HIV/HCV-coinfected; III = 9 cirrhotic HIV/HCV-coinfected) were included. Total (n = 56) and unbound (n = 36) LPV pharmacokinetic parameters were determined at steady-state using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters (plasma concentration just before drug administration, peak concentrations in plasma, times to maximum plasma concentration, areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours, and CL/F/kg) of both total and unbound LPV were calculated by standard noncompartmental methods and differences among groups evaluated (Kruskal-Wallis test).LPV apparent oral clearance normalized to body weight (median, interquartile range) was 55 (40-68), 59 (44-69), and 71 (53-78) mL/h/kg for groups I, II, and III, respectively (II vs. I, P = 0.52; III vs. I, P = 0.16). The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours were 110.4 (80.9-135.2), 103.4 (85.5-131.3), and 92.8 (87.4-116.3) μg*h/mL for groups I, II, and III, respectively (II vs. I, P = 0.68; III vs. I, P = 0.71).Chronic liver impairment produced a slight, although not significant, decrease in plasma protein binding. The free-fraction of LPV increased (∼21%) from 0.97% (0.80-1.06) in HIV+/HCV - patients to 1.18% (0.89-1.65) in HIV/HCV+ cirrhotic patients. The apparent oral clearance of unbound LPV (CLu/F/kg) in cirrhotic patients did not change significantly, supporting the concept that the clearance of unbound LPV in liver disease is not affected after being inhibited by low-dose ritonavir co-administration.LPV total and unbound pharmacokinetics were not affected by hepatic impairment, suggesting that no adjustment of LPV/r dose is required for HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with and without cirrhosis and moderate impairment of liver function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-313
Number of pages8
JournalTherapeutic Drug Monitoring
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2008


  • Hepatic impairment
  • HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection
  • Lopinavir/ritonavir
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • Unbound drug

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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