Loss-of-function maternal-effect mutations of PADI6 are associated with familial and sporadic Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with multi-locus imprinting disturbance

M.V. Cubellis, L. Pignata, A. Verma, A. Sparago, R. Del Prete, M. Monticelli, L. Calzari, V. Antona, D. Melis, R. Tenconi, S. Russo, F. Cerrato, A. Riccio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: PADI6 is a component of the subcortical maternal complex, a group of proteins that is abundantly expressed in the oocyte cytoplasm, but is required for the correct development of early embryo. Maternal-effect variants of the subcortical maternal complex proteins are associated with heterogeneous diseases, including female infertility, hydatidiform mole, and imprinting disorders with multi-locus imprinting disturbance. While the involvement of PADI6 in infertility is well demonstrated, its role in imprinting disorders is less well established. Results: We have identified by whole-exome sequencing analysis four cases of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with multi-locus imprinting disturbance whose mothers are carriers of PADI6 variants. In silico analysis indicates that these variants result in loss of function, and segregation analysis suggests they act as either recessive or dominant-negative maternal-effect mutations. Genome-wide methylation analysis revealed heterogeneous and extensively altered methylation profiles of imprinted loci in the patients, including two affected sisters, but not in their healthy siblings. Conclusion: Our results firmly establish the role of PADI6 in imprinting disorders. We report loss-of-function maternal-effect variants of PADI6 that are associated with heterogeneous multi-locus imprinting disturbances in the progeny. The rare finding of two siblings affected by Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome suggests that in some cases, familial recurrence risk of these variants may be high. However, the heterogeneous phenotypes of the other pedigrees suggest that altered oocyte PADI6 function results in stochastic maintenance of methylation imprinting with unpredictable consequences on early embryo health.

Original languageItalian
JournalClinical Epigenetics
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Cite this