Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous and aggressive neoplasia lacking the expression of hormonal receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the importance of miRNAs dysregulation in the establishment of cancer programs, but the functional role of many miRNAs remains unclear. The description of miRNAs roles might provide novel strategies for treatment. In the present work, an integrated analysis of miRNA transcriptional landscape was performed (N = 132), identifying the significant down-modulation of miR-342-3p in TNBC, probably because of the aberrant activity of estrogen receptor, which serves as a transcription factor of the miRNA, as demonstrated by a siRNA-knockdown approach. The enhanced expression of miR-342-3p significantly decreased cell proliferation, viability and migration rates of diverse TN cells in vitro. Bioinformatic and functional analyses revealed that miR-342-3p directly targets the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), which promotes lactate and glucose fluxes alteration, thus disrupting the metabolic homeostasis of tumor cells. Optical metabolic imaging assay defined a higher optical redox ratio in glycolytic cells overexpressing miR-342-3p. Furthermore, we found that hypoxic conditions and glucose starvation attenuate miR-342-3p expression, suggesting a crosstalk program between these metabolic factors. Consistently, miR-342-3p down-modulation is associated with an increased MCT1 expression level and glycolytic score in human triple negative tumors. Overall, we described for the first time the regulatory activity of miR-342-3p on relevant metabolic carcinogenic pathways in TN breast cancers.