Low-Dose Cyclophosphamide versus Intermediate-High-Dose Cyclophosphamide versus Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Alone for Stem Cell Mobilization in Multiple Myeloma in the Era of Novel Agents: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

Beatrice Anna Zannetti, Francesco Saraceni, Claudia Cellini, Elisabetta Fabbri, Federica Monaco, Attilio Guarini, Daniele Laszlo, Massimo Martino, Attilio Olivieri, Manuela Imola, Patrizia Tosi, Martina Chiarucci, Eliana Zuffa, Francesco Lanza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The optimal stem cell (SC) mobilization strategy for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) remains a matter of debate. Possible approaches include low or high doses of cyclophosphamide (Cy), other chemotherapeutic agents, or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone. The scope of the study was to compare low-dose Cy plus G-CSF versus intermediate-high-dose Cy plus G-CSF versus G-CSF alone for SC mobilization in MM, in terms of efficacy and safety. We retrospectively analyzed 422 MM patients undergoing SC mobilization in 6 Italian centers, including 188 patients who received low-dose Cy (LD-Cy group, defined as 2 g/m2), 163 patients who received intermediate-high-dose Cy (HD-Cy group, defined as ≥ 3 g/m2), and 71 patients who received G-CSF alone (G-CSF group). The median peak of circulating CD34+ cells was 77/µL in the LD-Cy group, 92/µL in the HD-Cy group, and 55/µL in the G-CSF group (P = .0001). The median amount of SCs collected was 9.1 × 106/kg, 9.7 × 106/kg, and 5.6 × 106/kg in the 3 groups, respectively (P = .0001). The rate of mobilization failure (defined as failure to collect ≥2 × 106/kg) was 3.7% in the LD-Cy group, 3.4% in the HD-Cy group, and 4.3% in the G-CSF group (P = .9). The target SC dose of at least 4 × 106/kg was reached in 90.4%, 91.1%, and 78.6% of the patients in these 3 groups, respectively (P = .014). The “on demand” use of plerixafor was higher in the G-CSF group (76%) compared with the LD-Cy group (19%) and the HD-Cy group (6%). In multivariate analysis, G-CSF mobilization and previous use of melphalan or radiotherapy were independently associated with failure to collect the target SC dose of ≥4 × 106/kg. No impacts of age, blood counts, or previous treatment with lenalidomide, bortezomib, or carfilzomib were observed. Our results suggest that LD-Cy may be considered for successful SC mobilization in patients with MM.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTransplantation and Cellular Therapy
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • Autologous stem cell transplantation
  • G-CSF priming
  • High-dose cyclophosphamide
  • Low-dose cyclophosphamide
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Plerixafor
  • Stem cell mobilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Transplantation
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Medicine

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