Low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage: Is ultrasound good enough?

Alessandro Parodi, Giovanni Morana, Maria S. Severino, Mariya Malova, Anna R. Natalizia, Andrea Sannia, Andrea Rossi, Luca A. Ramenghi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To assess diagnostic accuracy of cranial ultrasonography (CUS) in detecting low-grade (i.e. grade I and grade II) germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.Methods: Among VLBW infants who were admitted to Gaslini Childrens Hospital neonatal intensive care unit between January and November 2012, patients who underwent both serial CUS since birth and magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) at term-equivalent age were included in this retrospective study. Diagnostic accuracy of CUS in detecting low-grade GMH-IVH was assessed in terms of sensitivity and specificity by comparing it to SWI, which was used as the gold-standard technique.Results: Sixty VLBW infants were included in the study. Sensitivity of CUS in detecting low-grade GMH-IVH was low (60%), whilst specificity was 100%.Conclusions: In the present study, CUS sensitivity in detecting grade I-II GMH-IVH proved to be surprisingly low, in contrast with specificity. In other words, we suggest that low-grade GMH-IVH may be underdiagnosed in VLBW infants when assessed exclusively with CUS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2261-2264
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
Publication statusPublished - Nov 20 2015


  • Brain
  • germinal matrix hemorrhage
  • intraventricular hemorrhage
  • IVH
  • MRI
  • preterm
  • SWI
  • ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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