Interleukin-2 receptors are released in the circulation in response to antigenic or mytogenic stimulation of T-lymphocytes. Abnormal serum interleukin-2 receptor levels have been found in young children with type 1 diabetes and "prediabetes." We measured interleukin-2 receptor levels in 17 patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, 21 patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes, 19 patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes, 19 islet-cell antibody positive nondiabetic polyendocrine patients, 12 islet-cell antibody-positive first-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes and compared the results to age- and sex-matched normal controls. We found significantly lower interleukin-2 receptor levels in patients with newly diagnosed and long-standing type 1 diabetes compared to normal controls (87 ± 11 and 93 ± 11 vs. 142 ± 25 and 132 ± 40 U/ml, P <0.001 and P <0.01). There were no significant differences in interleukin-2 receptor levels between prediabetic groups and normal controls or patients with long-standing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. There was no correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose levels, and interleukin-2 receptor in the groups with long-standing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. We conclude that patients with type 1 diabetes have low interleukin-2 receptor serum levels. This phenomenon is acquired close to disease onset and is unlikely to be an early markers of type 1 diabetes.
- Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy
- Soluble interleukin-2 receptors
- Type 1 diabetes
- Type 2 diabetes
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