Sixty patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first remission (CR1; n = 49) or more advanced phase (n = 11) were entered in a prospective trial of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis: low-dose cyclosporin A (IdCSA; 1 mg/kg/d from day -1 to +20 day; n = 28) or IdCSA plus low-dose methotrexate (IdMTX; 10 mg/m2 for day +1, 8 mg/m2 for days +3, +6, and +11; n = 32) Primary end points were acute GvHD (aGvHD) and transplant-related mortality (TRM); secondary end points were relapse and survival. The conditioning regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and fractionated total body irradiation (3.3 Gy/d for 3 consecutive days). The actuarial risk of developing aGvHD grade I1-111 was 61% for IdCSA alone and 34% for IdCSA + IdMTX (P = .02). The actuarial risk of TRM at 1 year was 11% versus 13%, respectively, and older patients (≤29 years) had higher TRM than younger patients (22% v 5%, P= .01). The age effect was significant in the IdCSA group (P = .04) but not in the IdCSA + IdMTX group (P = .1). The median follow-up is 4.4 years, with an overall actuarial survival of 78% for CR1 patients and 36% for patients with advanced disease. For patients in CB1 the outcome of the two regimens was as follows: survival 77% versus 80% (P = .6), relapse 20% versus 9% (P = .1), and TRM 13% versus 17% (P = .6). This study suggests that TRM can be reduced in AML patients undergoing allogeneic marrow transplants with a mild conditioning regimen and low-dose immunosuppression, and this translates in a 78% 5-year survival for CR1 patients. Beyond CR1 the major obstacle remains leukemia relapse, which is not prevented by low-dose in vivo immunosuppression.
|Number of pages||6|
|Publication status||Published - May 1 1998|
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