: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a social and public health problem. Thanks to more and more effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), nowadays HIV-positive patients live longer, thus increasing their probability to acquire other diseases, malignancies primarily. Senescence along with immune-system impairment, HIV-related habits and other oncogenic virus co-infections increase the cancer risk of people living with HIV (PLWH); in the next future non-AIDS-defining cancers will prevail, lung cancer (LC) in particular. Tumor in PLWH might own peculiar predictive and/or prognostic features, and antineoplastic agents' activity might be subverted by drug-drug interactions (DDIs) due to concurrent ART. Moreover, PLWH immune properties and comorbidities might influence both the response and tolerability of oncologic treatments. The therapeutic algorithm of LC, rapidly and continuously changed in the last years, should be fitted in the context of a special patient population like PLWH. This is quite challenging, also because HIV-positive patients have been often excluded from participation to clinical trials, so that levels of evidence about systemic treatments are lower than evidence in HIV-uninfected individuals. With this review, we depicted the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical-pathological characteristics and implications for LC care in PLWH, offering a valid focus about this topic to clinicians.
- Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
- Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
- Drug Interactions
- Drug Therapy
- HIV Infections/complications
- Lung Neoplasms/complications