Aims: Liver X receptors α and β (LXRα, LXRβ) are key regulators of cholesterol homeostasis. The effects of LXR ligands on endothelial cells are largely unknown. While oxysterol LXR agonists can increase the endothelial-leukocyte interaction, synthetic LXR agonists are anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory. Mechanistic differences may underlie such findings. Methods and results: LXRα and LXRβ were found to be expressed in human endothelial cells. While synthetic LXR agonists could blunt the LPS-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-Selectin), 22-hydroxycholesterol and 24,25-epoxycholesterol enhanced such response. Microarray profiling further showed that the endothelial gene expression fingerprints of 22-hydroxycholesterol and T0901317 largely differed and unexpectedly shared only a restricted number of genes. Indeed, 22-hydroxycholesterol down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated a vast cohort of inflammatory mediators such as adhesion molecules, cytokines, enzymes and transcription factors. Other LXR-activating oxysterols such as 24,25-epoxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol could also stimulate the endothelial expression of inflammatory markers, although significant differences were observed. These effects persisted in LXR-silenced cells, confirming the mechanistic dissociation of oxysterol and LXR pathways. Furthermore, the oxysterol-induced expression of inflammatory markers was not secondary to cell apoptosis and may relate to oxidative stress. Conclusions: LXR-activating oxysterols comprehensively activate the expression of endothelial inflammation markers independently from LXRs. At proper dosage, synthetic LXR agonists are safe on endothelial cells and may even transrepress inflammatory reactions.
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2009|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine