Macroscopic Hematuria After Conventional or Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy: Results From a Prospective Phase 3 Study

Giuseppe Sanguineti, Fabio Arcidiacono, Valeria Landoni, Bianca Maria Saracino, Alessia Farneti, Stefano Arcangeli, Maria Grazia Petrongari, Sara Gomellini, Lidia Strigari, Giorgio Arcangeli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose To assess the macroscopic hematuria rates within a single-institution randomized phase 3 trial comparing dose-escalated, conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) and moderately hypofractionated radiation therapy (MHRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials Patients with intermediate- to high-risk localized prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT and short-course androgen deprivation. Both the prostate and the entire seminal vesicles were treated to 80 Gy in 40 fractions over 8 weeks (CFRT) or 62 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (MHRT). The endpoint of the present study was the development of any episode or grade of macroscopic hematuria. The median follow-up period was 93 months (range 6-143). Results Macroscopic hematuria was reported by 25 of 168 patients (14.9%). The actuarial estimate of hematuria at 8 years was 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7%-23.3%). The number of patients with hematuria was 6 and 19 in the CFRT and MHRT arms, respectively, for an actuarial 8-year estimate of 9.7% and 24.3%, respectively (hazard ratio 3.468, 95% CI 1.385-8.684; P=.008). Overall, 8 of 25 patients were found to have biopsy-proven urothelial carcinoma (3 in the CFRT arm and 5 in the MHRT arm; P=.27). Thus, the 8-year actuarial incidence of macroscopic hematuria (after censoring urothelial cancer–related episodes) was 4.1% and 18.2% after CFRT and MHRT, respectively (hazard ratio 4.961, 95% CI 1.426-17.263; P=.012). The results were confirmed by multivariate analysis after accounting for several patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related covariates. Conclusions MHRT was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of macroscopic hematuria compared with CFRT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)304-312
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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