Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta which leads to dysfunction of cerebral pathways critical for the control of movements. The diagnosis of PD is based on motor symptoms, such as bradykinesia, akinesia, muscular rigidity, postural instability, and resting tremor, which are evident only after the degeneration of a significant number of dopaminergic neurons. Currently, a marker for early diagnosis of PD is still not available. Consequently, also the development of disease-modifying therapies is a challenge. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a quantitative imaging technique that allows in vivo measurement of certain neurometabolites and may produce biomarkers that reflect metabolic dysfunctions and irreversible neuronal damage. This review summarizes the abnormalities of cerebral metabolites found in MRS studies performed in patients with PD and other forms of parkinsonism. In addition, we discuss the potential role of MRS as in vivo molecular imaging biomarker for early diagnosis of PD and for monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)