Magnetization transfer imaging of acute black holes in patients on glatiramer acetate

Robert Zivadinov, Sara Hussein, Niels Bergsland, Alireza Minagar, Michael G. Dwyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this study was to determine evolution of T1 unenhanced hypointense lesions (acute or chronic black holes (ABHs, CBHs)) by measuring their magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) changes over 12 months. 40 glatiramer acetate (GA)-naive patients with relapsing-remitting MS who presented with 1 or more contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs) at baseline underwent 1.5-T MRI at baseline and after 12 months. Lesions were classified into 4 patterns based on differences in lesion isointensity or hypointensity over 12 months. Of 115 CELs detected at baseline, 64, after 12 months, followed pattern A (isointense-isointense), 6 pattern B (isointensehypointense), 33 pattern C (hypointense-isointense), and 12 pattern D (hypointense-hypointense). MTR significantly increased for all unenhanced T1 hypointense lesions (p = 0.02). Highest MTR increases were observed for patterns C (ABHs +18.2%, p less than 0.001) and D (CBHs +34.2%, p = 0.023), but significant improvement was also detected for pattern A (+1.4%, p = 0.046); no significant MTR changes were found for pattern B. GA treatment significantly recovered MTR in ABHs and CBHs, possibly indicating a greater potential for remyelination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1496-1504
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Bioscience - Elite
Volume4 E
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2012


  • Acute Black Hole
  • Chronic Black Hole
  • Glatiramer Acetate
  • Magnetization Transfer Imaging
  • MRI
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Remyelination
  • T1 Hypointense Lesion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Medicine(all)


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