Maize food allergy: Lipid-transfer proteins, endochitinases, and alpha-zein precursor are relevant maize allergens in double-blind placebo-controlled maize-challenge-positive patients

Elide A. Pastorello, Laura Farioli, Valerio Pravettoni, Joseph Scibilia, Amedeo Conti, Donatella Fortunato, Linda Borgonovo, Simona Bonomi, Laura Primavesi, Barbara Ballmer-Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Italian patients with maize anaphylaxis have been shown to have IgE toward two major maize allergens: an alpha-amylase inhibitor and a 9-kDa LTP. A complete study on maize food allergens in patients with positive maize double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is lacking. The objective was to utilize the three maize protein fractions to identify and characterize the most relevant IgE-binding proteins recognized by the sera of Italian and Swiss patients with either a positive maize-DBPCFC or a history of maize-induced anaphylaxis. Osborne's protein fractions of maize were extracted to obtain water-soluble, total zein, and total protein fractions. Protein IgE-binding capacity was investigated by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting using the sera from DBPCFC-positive patients and from patients with maize-induced anaphylaxis. Purified maize LTP was used to inhibit the IgE immunoblotting of the three protein fractions. IgE immunoblotting demonstrated that the 9-kDa LTP was recognized by all the Italian patients and by none of the Swiss patients. Other allergens were: 14-kDa α-amylase inhibitor, 30-kDa endochitinases A and -B, 19 kDa zein-β precursor, and 26∈kDa zein-α precursor; a newly described allergen, the globulin-2 precursor, identified in the total protein fraction. It is noteworthy that maize LTP and endochitinase were cross-reactive with grape LTP and one grape endochitinase. LTP was found to be the only major allergen in Italian patients with either positive maize challenge or a history of maize-induced anaphylaxis. We have identified other maize allergens in subjects with maize food allergy, as grape cross-reactive endochitinase, however, the clinical significance of these proteins needs to be investigated in larger groups of patients with allergy to these food items.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-102
Number of pages10
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume395
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2009

Keywords

  • Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge
  • Grape allergens
  • Grape cross-reactivity
  • Lipid transfer proteins
  • LTP
  • Maize allergens
  • Maize anaphylaxis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry

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