Chronic heart failure is a complicated multifactorial disease with wide-spread social-economic consequences. In spite of the recent development of new drugs and therapeutic strategies, CHF-related mortality and morbidity remain high. Recent evidence suggests that changes in organs such as skeletal muscle and gut flora may play an important and independent role in CHF prognosis. This paper illustrates these phenomena, proposing how to identify them and presenting current therapies which treat organs all too often underestimated but which have a fundamental role in worsening CHF.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)