Biliary strictures can be broadly classified as benign or malignant. Benign biliary strictures are most commonly iatrogenic in nature and are a consequence of hepatobiliary surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the pancreas are the most common causes of malignant biliary obstruction. This article reviews state-of-the-art minimally invasive techniques used to manage these strictures. In addition, the roles of (a) recently introduced biodegradable biliary stents in the management of benign biliary strictures and (b) intraprocedural imaging and navigation tools, such as cone-beam CT, in percutaneous reconstruction of the biliary-enteric anastomosis are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging