Cardiotoxicity encompasses a spectrum of adverse cardiological effects experienced by cancer patients during and after receiving antineoplastic treatments. The intersection of cancer care with the management of the multiple comorbid non-communicable diseases carried by patients or related to cancer treatments motivates the need for an integrated and multidisciplinary approach to therapeutic clinical decision-making. This present review aimed to provide a perspective and an update of the current pharmacotherapy approaches for the prevention and management of cardiotoxicity from antiblastic chemotherapy; as such, it addresses myocardial, vascular, and arrhythmic disorders associated to chemotherapy, by navigating the current knowledge and clinical indications in support of the medical interventions. Clinical scenarios of pharmacological interventions take place with patients receiving anthracycline and, by extrapolation, other agents with cardiotoxic potentials and non-chemotherapy agents, including various small molecules and immunotherapy agents. Analysis of these scenarios aims to provide practical evidence-based guidance for the management of drug-induced cardiac dysfunctions. The possible role of new biomarkers for the early recognition of cardiotoxicity is mentioned across the clinical studies, with reference to the pharmacological biomarker-driven interventions delivered. To best inform survivorship care, the management and context of cardio-oncology services are discussed within the broader network of providers and settings of care.