Management of cardiovascular risk in the perimenopausal women: A consensus statement of European cardiologists and gynecologists

P. Collins, G. Rosano, C. Casey, C. Daly, M. Gambacciani, P. Hadji, R. Kaaja, T. Mikkola, S. Palacios, R. Preston, T. Simon, J. Stevenson, M. Stramba-Badiale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cardiovascular risk is poorly managed in women, especially during the menopausal transition when susceptibility to cardiovascular events increases. Clear gender differences exist in the epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, progression, prognosis and management of cardiovascular risk. Key risk factors that need to be controlled in the perimenopausal woman are hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome, with the avoidance and careful control of diabetes. Hypertension is a particularly powerful risk factor and lowering of blood pressure is pivotal. Hormone replacement therapy is acknowledged as the gold standard for the alleviation of the distressing vasomotor symptoms of the menopause, but the findings of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study generated concern for the detrimental effect on cardiovascular events. Thus, hormone replacement therapy cannot be recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Whether the findings of WHI in older postmenopausal women can be applied to younger perimenopausal women is unknown. It is increasingly recognized that hormone therapy is inappropriate for older postmenopausal women no longer displaying menopausal symptoms. Both gynecologists and cardiovascular physicians have an important role to play in identifying perimenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and should work as a team to identify and manage risk factors, such as hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)508-526
Number of pages19
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2007


  • Cardiology
  • Cardiovascular Prevention
  • Cardiovascular Risk
  • Gynecology
  • Hormones
  • Hypertension
  • Menopause
  • Metabolic Syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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